6 Principles (and the bonus 7th principle) of “Those Who Turned the World Upside Down” part 6

28 06 2010

This is part six in a series on the topic, “New Testament Principles on Leadership Structure.”  Enjoy.  If you want to catch up on the previous parts, scroll down.

Principle #6: Elders are Appointed

Acts 14:23 reads, “So when they had appointed elders in every church, and prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord in whom they had believed.” Paul told Titus to “appoint elders in every town…” (Titus 1:5).  The word “appointed” is from the Greek verb, cheirotoneo, meaning “appoint,” “designate,” or “choose.”  Elders were chosen by the apostles and the local leadership of each church.

The early apostles knew that false teachers and heretics were growing in influence in the newly planted churches.  Indeed, one of the elder’s most important responsibilities was guarding the flock from false doctrine.  Thus, it makes sense that the apostles would have seen the need for the proper appointment of biblically educated elders.  In the context of Acts 14:23, “…they (apostles) commended them (newly appointed elders) to the Lord…”  The verb “commended” (paratithemi) implies entrusting something valuable (Strauch, ibid, p. 139).  The implication and meaning of this phrase being the value placed by the apostles on those whom they appointed to this task.

In 1 Timothy 5:17, the elders are the ones who “rule” in the local congregation. The word “rule” is the Greek word, prohistemi, meaning lead, manage, or direct.  Therefore, in crucial matters, such as the selection of leadership for the church, the overseers should direct the whole process (Strauch, p. 278).  For this reason, healthy eldership means that the elders are always on the lookout for new leadership that can be developed in the congregation.  Kenneth O. Gangel, professor and chairman of the department of Christian Education at Dallas Theological Seminary says, “The key to reproducing leadership is to clearly plan for it.  Church leaders need to produce leaders who will reproduce leaders precisely as it is done in the family—through experience, instruction, and modeling” (Feeding and Leading, p. 309 and 313, quoted by Strauch, ibid, p. 278-9).  These explanations provide us with new meaning to  2 Timothy 2:2 that reads, “And the things that you have heard from me among many witnesses, commit these to faithful men who will be able to teach others also.” One of the most important qualities of strong leadership in a local church is the ability to raise up other strong leaders.

Benefits of Appointing Elders:

  • The leadership of the congregation realizes the need for strong team leadership
  • The elders of the church are able to observe and choose the most qualified men
  • The leadership must fast and pray and seek God before choosing new leadership
  • New leadership is constantly being perpetuated as the elders look for and develop more leaders

In Practicum:

The MSC board elder team selects new elders for the board.  The pastoral elder team, in consultation with the board, appoints new pastors.  All pastors at MSC are required to be building their ministries with other strong and capable leaders of character that can share the load of leadership and more effectively multiply their influence into their areas of discipleship.

Principle #7:  Elders are Men

For the Bible believing follower of Christ, the fundamental principle for male leadership is the person of Jesus.  God, the Father, sent Jesus, the Son, to the earth.  God did not send a daughter, but a son.  Jesus was the “last Adam” and the “first born son of David.”  It is the maleness of Jesus that is the marital picture used for Christ and the church in Ephesians 5.   His maleness was not an arbitrary matter (Strauch, ibid, p. 52). 

Jesus chose twelve men to “be with Him.”  Peter, James, and John became the first leaders in Jerusalem.  The twelve apostles in Jerusalem appointed seven men to wait on tables.  Paul became the first elder to the gentile churches and appointed only men in positions of leadership.  Timothy led the church at Ephesus.  Titus was the lead elder on Crete.  In every example of government structure in the New Testament, men are chosen to lead. Indeed one of the qualifications given for leadership in the local church is that the elder be, “the husband of one wife” (1 Timothy 3:2-7; Titus 1:6-9).  Clearly stated, in God’s divine order, men are tasked with leading the church. 

Paul loves to use the household analogy when speaking of the divine order for the local church (see 1 Timothy 3:15).  Just as he teaches male headship in the family, Paul also teaches male headship in the local body of believers, the church (1 Timothy 2:8-3:7).  Since the home is the basic unit for social order, it should not be a surprise that Paul would take the same analogy into the order for the “household of God” (Strauch, ibid, p. 58).  In Paul’s mind the leadership of a biological family is an extension of His leadership over the church family.

For the sake of not being misunderstood in our 21st century world, I must be clear in stating that I believe that the biblical teaching regarding men and women is of full equality in dignity, personhood, gifting, and value, but distinct in gender roles.  In explaining what the Bible teaches about eldership in the church, I am not making a statement about the role of women outside the church (i.e. home, work, or politics, etc.).  My purpose is to only share what the New Testament teaches about roles in leadership within the church.

John Piper, one of the editors of Recovering Biblical Manhood and Womanhood, clearly expresses my heart concerning our differences:

Over the years I have come to see from scripture and from life that manhood and womanhood are the beautiful handiwork of a good and loving God.  He designed our differences and they are profound.  They are not mere physiological prerequisites for sexual union.  They go to the root of our personhood” (p. 32, cited by Strauch, ibid, p. 52).

God’s divine gender roles really matter.  Like the play, Romeo and Juliet, each actor has a role. When the roles are played according to the script and guided by the producer, a wonderful play is produced.  So it is in the church of Jesus Christ.

Benefits for Appointing Male Elders:

  • The Bible clearly states that male headship results in the proper divine order for the home and church
  • Men who lead with love (Ephesians 5:25) will imitate Christ and give their lives for the church
  • When the biblical roles of divine order are observed, the result is a unified and smooth governorship
  • Men and women, functioning in their proper roles, result in a more effective church ministry

In Practicum:

All of our MSC board and pastoral elders are men.

In Conclusion

As I finish this white paper, I feel compelled to conclude with the admonition of Peter, “above all things have fervent love for one another…” (1 Peter 4:8a).  When we read the first letter of John, we are constantly reminded of the vital importance of love in everything we do.  Love is the definer of what we believe (see 1 John 3-4).  Love is the greatest commandment (see Matthew 22:35-40).  This commandment is defined by our actions of loving God and people.  We cannot say that we love God and then hate our brother (see 1 John 3-4).  Therefore, the most important testimony of love for God is our love for God’s people.  Every elder must lead with such love.  Great love is great leadership.

A loving Jesus raises up loving elders.  Loving elders build loving churches.  What we need today are loving churches.  Churches built on walking in the truth of love (see 2nd and 3rd John) are churches which are impacting the world with the “agapeo” of Christ.  The most important function of leadership in a New Testament church is that of love.  Such love cascades down into the body and touches every member.

In conclusion, may love be our aim, may love be our vision, and may love for one another be the hallmark of our church.





6 Principles of “Those Who Turned the World Upside Down” part 3

7 06 2010

This is part three in a series on the topic, “New Testament Principles on Leadership Structure.”  Enjoy.  If you want to catch up on the previous parts, scroll down.

Principle #3: First among Equals

Paul explains the principle of “first among equals” when he writes, “Let the elders who rule well be counted worthy of double honor, especially those who labor in the word and doctrine” (1 Timothy 5:17).  Paul is expressing a “first among equals” status for certain leaders who were especially called and gifted in teaching God’s Word.  John MacArthur, in his commentary on this passage writes, “Elders who serve with greater commitment, excellence, and effort should have greater acknowledgement from their congregations.  Implicit is the idea that some elders will work harder and be more prominent in ministry” (Study Bible, p. 1869).  It seems that God has designed spiritual gifts such that certain members of the church are given the gift of teaching and leadership in preparing and equipping the Body of Christ for ministry.  There ministry will have greater prominence in the local church.  Alexander Strauch also expresses this sentiment:

Although elders act jointly as a council and share equal authority and responsibility for the leadership of the church, all are not equal in their giftedness, biblical knowledge, leadership ability, experience, or dedication.  Therefore, those among the elders who are particularly gifted leaders and/or teachers will naturally stand out among the other elders as leaders and teachers within the leadership body.  This is what the Romans called primus inter pares, meaning “first among equals” (ibid, p. 45).

Even Jesus singled out Peter, James, and John as “first among equals” in relation to the other twelve disciples (see Luke 8:51; 9:28; Mark 14:23).  In all four gospel accounts, Peter is the prominent leader among the twelve disciples.  Peter also stands shoulders above the other leaders in the Jerusalem church (see Acts 2:14, 42; 4:33, 35; 5:12, 18, 29, 42; 6:2-6; 8:14; 9:27; 15:2-29).   Peter is the chief leader among the elders in Jerusalem in the first twelve chapters of Acts.  In the second half of Acts, beginning in chapter thirteen, Paul becomes the dominant leader among the apostles outside of Jerusalem.  In Paul’s letter to the Galatians he speaks of James, Peter, and John as the “pillars” of the church in Jerusalem (see Galatians 2:7-9).

We further advance this principle of “first among equals” as we see who the pastoral epistles (1st and 2nd Timothy and Titus) are written to.  Paul directs his two letters to Timothy, and not the elders in Ephesus.  Paul sends his letter to Titus and not to the elders at Crete. Indeed, with Timothy and Titus are both taxed with the responsibility to “set in order the things that are lacking” and develop strong leadership in each church.

The pastoral epistles describe men who are the “first among equals” in building solid structure in teaching, church discipline, leadership qualifications, and church government.  The level of authority and the kind of teaching that Paul brings to these men make it obvious that they are to follow just what Paul admonishes Timothy,  “And the things that you have heard from me among many witnesses, commit these to faithful men who will be able to teach others also” (2 Timothy 2:2).  Thus, Timothy in Ephesus and Titus in Crete are acting in the capacity of being lead pastors over the governing leaders in each congregation. 

Accordingly, scripture shows that the main vision, values, and direction of the Jerusalem church came from Peter (see Acts 1-13), and that the main visionary of the churches outside of Jerusalem rested largely with Paul (see Acts 14-28).  The lead pastor in Ephesus at the time of Paul’s letter was Timothy.  The lead pastor in Crete was Titus.  Thus, the principle of “first among equals” is another strong principle of New Testament government.

Wayne Grudem in Systematic Theology explains practically how “first among equals” can function in a local church:  

The senior pastor would be one among the elders in this system.  He does not have authority over them, nor does he work for them as an employee.  He has a somewhat distinct role in that he is engaged in the full time work of ‘preaching and teaching,’ (1 Tim. 5:17), and derives part or all of his income from that work (1 Tim 5:18).  He also may frequently assume a leadership role (such as chairman) among the elders, which would fit with his leadership role among the congregation…Such a system would allow a pastor to exercise strong leadership in the church while still having equal authority with the other elders” (p. 933).

Hence, the New Testament is very clear that God raises up men with a certain gifting of leadership and teaching that is used by God to build up and guide the local church toward the vision God has given that body of believers.  They are not more special or more gifted but do occupy a position of greater responsibility to the Lord and the elders in leading the church.

Benefits of a “First among Equals” Government Structure:

  • A highly gifted leader or teacher can use his God-given gift mix to its full potential
  • As the church provides financial support for this leader or leaders, the whole body will be blessed by their full time commitment to the church
  • Such leadership can provide necessary protection from abuse, heresy, and bad teaching as the leader or leaders can give necessary time to the plans and preparations of leading the church
  • A lead pastor can have the time to seek the Lord for clear direction and vision for the local church
  • A lead pastor with strong accountability will be able to lead the elders in a plan and strategy that can in turn bless every member of the local congregation

In Practicum:

As the senior pastor and founding pastor at MSC, I am often considered the “first among equals” at Elder Board meetings.  I am equal and not above the other elders in all matters related to the board.  But because my role involves visionary leading and teaching God’s Word, God has given me a certain responsibility and equity with my spiritual and board elders that requires that I lead out on visionary matters.  In some church structures, I would be designated as the “teaching elder.”  MSC also has an executive pastor who is a “first among equals” with the other pastors as he leads them in the day to day ministry of the church.

How and by Whom are Decisions Made at MSC?

In the process of decision making, the question is often asked “How and by whom are decisions made at MSC?”  On both the pastoral elder team and board elder team, we have utilized several approaches to decision making.  All of these approaches have value in certain circumstances.  I will explain this process from the continuum of autocratic to democratic:

Autocratic à  Consultative àConsensus à Democratic

The Autocratic mode of decision making means that one man leads and makes all major decisions.  At MSC, we rarely use this approach.  Yet there are times when myself, or one of our other lead pastors or board elders, must make a decision quickly and singularly.  Even in those situations, we encourage that consultation be sought first.

The Consultative mode of decision making means that a leader consults, gets the opinion of others and from that consultation makes a decision with the group largely in agreement.  I prefer this model more than the Autocratic and find that this is often an excellent approach. We have, from time to time, had to make major decisions that will impact the whole church, and I have always followed the consultive and also the following, consensus model.

The Consensus mode of decision making means that the group agrees in unison on a given approach or decision.  This is my preferred approach to leading and managing MSC.  Almost all decisions made by the pastors and board fall into this category.

The Democratic mode of decision making means that votes are cast and the majority wins.  Although this is the approach used in many churches, I have rarely used this, as it has the potential to short circuit the deep prayer and consensus building needed to develop a solid team that hears God together.  However, at the point of a deadlock, this approach can be preferable.

On the Pastoral and Board Elder Teams we approach each issue and decision with what I refer to as the “75/100 Rule.”  This means that we will always seek 75% agreement on a decision, but 100% support once the decision is made.  After much dialogue, once a decision is made, even if there is not complete unanimity on the decision, when we walk out of the meeting, we will support the decision 100% in talking about or discussing it with the congregation.  This enables us to keep unity in the body, even when we disagree on certain matters.





6 Principles of “Those Who Turned the World Upside Down” part 2

1 06 2010

This is part two in a series on the topic, “New Testament Principles on Leadership Structure.” Enjoy. If you want to catch up on the previous part, scroll down and find part one.

Principle #2: Team Leadership

Jesus modeled team leadership in organizing twelve men into an itinerate ministry that shook the Jewish world (see the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John). After Jesus’ ascension into heaven, the eleven apostles immediately set out to elect a twelfth (Matthias) and reorganize team leadership for the days ahead (see Act 1:15-26). Even as it appears from Luke’s account that Peter and John quickly emerged as the strongest leaders among the twelve apostles (see Acts 1-5), the team leadership structure remained intact. With the structural problems that arose with the feeding of widows, the apostles chose a shared leadership structure by naming seven men who were appointed to distribute food (see Acts 6:3-6).

Even as the early church grew into the thousands with multiple locations, team leadership continued to be a hallmark of church polity. One of the earliest churches outside of Jerusalem, the church at Antioch, developed a leadership team built around Barnabas, Saul, and “the elders” (Acts 11:30). With the first missionary outreach came the expansion of the Jerusalem fellowship into church planting throughout the Mediterranean (see Acts 13-14). Paul and Barnabas realized the need for leadership structure through team ministry as they “appointed elders in every church” (Acts 14:23). In Acts 15:6 we observe that “the apostles and the elders came to together” to make a theological decision.

Paul provides more insight as he writes Titus about the need for leadership structure: “For this reason I left you in Crete, that you should set in order the things that are lacking, and appoint elders in every city as I commanded you” (Titus 1:5). Paul, in his instruction to Timothy writes, “Let the elders who rule well be counted worthy of double honor, especially those who labor in the word and doctrine” (1 Timothy 5:17). James instructs the “elders” to come and pray over those who are sick (see James 5:14). In Paul’s final farewell to the church in Ephesus, he called “the elders of the church” together (see Acts 20:17, 28). Paul in writing the church in Philippi addressed, “the overseers (plural) and deacons” (Philippians 1:1, emphasis added). Peter instructed the “elders” to shepherd the flock in Asia Minor (see 1 Peter 5:1). In each of these passages we observe team leadership in the churches. A more through study would exhibit more evidence of this principle. (See also Acts 13:1; 15:35; 1 Corinthians 16:15, 16; 1 Thessalonians 5:12, 13; Hebrews 13:7, 17, and 24)

Alexander Strauch writes in his book, Biblical Eldership, “The New Testament reveals that the pastoral oversight of many of the first churches was committed to a plurality of elders. This was true of the earliest Jewish Christian churches in Jerusalem, Judea, and neighboring countries, as well as many of the first gentile churches” (p. 36). Thus, we observe that the New Testament is a testimonial of shared leadership through a plurality of elders. From Jesus to the establishment of the church, the pages of scripture model a structure of leadership that is collegiate and collective in a team approach.

Benefits of Team Leadership:

• Team leadership covers and balances the weaknesses of the individual members

• Team leadership provides the synergy of different gifts and talents working together for the common good

• Team leadership holds each member accountable in his character and in his work

• Team leadership lightens the load of ministry duties and responsibilities

• Team leadership models a collegiate and loving group to the church

• Team leadership provides a group of men to relate to and work with, who become friends and brothers that make the ministry fun and joyful

In Practicum:

MSC has an elder team leadership approach. We have a “Pastoral Elder Team” made up of the staff pastors. The pastoral team leads the church in all matters related to the spiritual and pastoral direction of the church. We also have a “Board Elder Team” that guides the church in all matters related to legal matters, financial policies and procedures. As the Senior Pastor I am accountable to and reviewed annually by this Board Elder Team. The Board Elder Team is consulted and utilized in all hiring, firing, and disciplinary actions related to the Pastoral Elder Team.